The Holy Land of Scotland: Jesus in Scotland and the Gospel of the Grail
Mysteries of Chartres Cathedral
Rosa Templum: The enigmatic arcanum of Rosslyn Chapel and the Bride of Christ
Monarch of antiquity: The sacred yew in Fortingall, central Scotland, reputedly the oldest tree in Europe
Curiously, rather than avoid pre-Christian, so-called ‘pagan’ sites, the early Celtic Culdee monks often seemed to specifically overlay these ancient sites of worship with their own spiritual focus and presence. Why? Could it be there was a synthesis of natural elements focussed into these apparent pagan vortices which the celtic monks believed would act as a charge to supplement and reinforce their own spiritual practices. To quote the co-authors John Michell and Christine Rhone in their ground breaking book, Twelve Tribe Nations and the Science of Enchanting the Landscape (1991): “The first requirement of a ruling priesthood is to locate and occupy the naturally powerful centres of spiritual energy in the landscape. This involves the use of geomancy, meaning divination through the earth or earth magic. Through geomancy are discovered the most effective sites and designs for temples in relation to the spiritual energy field of the country as a whole. The many sciences which contribute to geomancy include astronomy and geology, for temples should be sited at natural meeting-places between the powers of heaven and earth. This principle is now recognized by archaeologists, who have discovered in recent years that temples and old stone monuments in all countries are related to their surroundings in two ways, astronomically and geologically.”
The apparent overlaying of pre-Christian, probably Druidic sites, particularly in the more Celticised regions, by the later celtic monastic orders would seem to run parallel with the view that the Culdees were the ‘Christian inheritors of the Druids’. In other words the same mystery wisdom teaching would appear to be central to both the Druidic and celtic Christian philosophical tradition, especially when one considers that both appear to have employed the same principles embodied in an ancient sacred science. For example, the siting and format of their places of worship and also the use of holy healing wells. Although the early celtic church sites may not always exactly overlay pre-Christian sites of spiritual worship, they often appear to align with pre-existing megalithic stone circles and other stone monoliths, which in turn appear to be mapped out according to a specific matrix configuration on the Earth’s landscape. In Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race (1911) the author, T.W. Rolleston, notes that “Very soon after the conversion of Ireland to Christianity, we find the country covered with monasteries, whose complete organisation seems to indicate that they were really Druidic colleges transformed en masse.”
In support of the foregoing, Walter Johnson, F.G.S., in his Byways in British Archaeology (1912) remarks: “Sir Norman Lockyer, in his work on Stonehenge, asserts that many churches have been built on the sites of circles and menhirs….churches were frequently built in proximity to holy wells, so that we have a triple relationship….Cordiner, an eighteenth century writer, asserts that Benachie church, Aberdeenshire, is built within a stone-circle, and that the practice of thus building was not infrequent in that country. And Mr. W.G. Wood-Martin has recorded at least two cromlechs in Irish churchyards.”
The megalithic tradition in the British Isles can apparently be traced back to at least 3,000 B.C., if not earlier still. This tradition seems to have been based on a very sophisticated philosophy of sacred science such as was taught centuries later by the Pythagorean school. This ancient sacred science revolved around an awareness of the microcosmic energy systems of the earth being interconnected to a vast macrocosmic stellar matrix encompassing the heavenly firmament. This is clearly portrayed by the geomantic and astrological alignments of numerous megalithic stone circles and other ancient sites throughout the world. As Professor Alexander Thom observes in his book Megalithic Sites in Britain (1967): “It is remarkable that one thousand years before the earliest mathematicians of classical Greece, people in these islands not only had a practical knowledge of geometry and were capable of setting out elaborate geometrical designs but could also set out ellipses based on the Pythagorean triangles.”
In this connection, the Rev. Edward Davies in his work The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids (1809) provides the following interesting comment and information: “That Stonehenge was a Druidical temple of high eminence, and that its construction evinces considerable proficiency in astronomy, has been the decided opinion of many respectable antiquaries. That I may not multiply proofs of a fact so generally known, I shall only extract part of the learned Mr. Maurice’s remarks [from his work Indian Antiquities] upon that celebrated monument: ‘….in the first place, it is circular, as it is there proved, all ancient temples to the Sun and Vesta were. In the second place, the Adytum or Sanctum Sanctorum, is of an oval form, representing the Mundane egg, after the manner that all those adyta, in which the sacred fire perpetually blazed were constantly fabricated. In the third place, the situation is fixed astronomically, as we shall make fully evident when we come to speak of Abury: the grand entrances, both of this temple, and that superb monument of antiquity, being placed exactly North-east, as all the gates or portals of the ancient caverns, and cavern temples were; especially those dedicated to Mithra, that is, the sun. In the fourth place, the number of stones and uprights (in the outward circle) making together, exactly sixty, plainly alludes to that peculiar, and prominent feature of Asiatic astronomy, the sexagenary cycle - while the number of stones, forming the minor circle of the cove, being exactly nineteen, displays to us the famous Metonic, or rather Indian cycle; and that of thirty, repeatedly occurring, the celebrated age, or generation of the Druids. Fifthly, the temple being uncovered, proves it to have been erected under impressions, similar to those which animated the ancient Persians, who rejected the impious idea of confining the Deity within an inclosed shrine, however magnificent, and therefore, consequently, at all events, it must have been erected before the age of Zoroaster, who flourished more than five hundred years before Christ, and who first covered in the Persian temples’.”
In her classic work The Ancient Secret: In Search of the Holy Grail (1953) Lady Flavia Anderson notes: “Mr. Norman Lockyer in his Dawn of Astronomy has shown what an important part the orientation of temples played in all religions. The old buildings were so designed as to act as long dark telescopes, pointing towards a particular spot on the horizon at which the sun rose on a particular day of the year. With the aid of such ‘telescopes’ the priests were able to check their calculations of the solar calendar, for only once or twice in the twelve months would sunshine enter the holy place at dawn. The pylons and obelisks which flanked the entrance to Egyptian temples acted like the sights of a rifle to help the calculations. Such were the pillars of the temple of Hercules at Tyre, and the famous pillars of Jachin and Boaz, which the King of Tyre’s architect built for Solomon, were no doubt constructed for the same purpose. According to Professor Hooke, Solomon’s temple was orientated due east, so that the dawn-light would have entered the Tabernacle at both the spring and autumn equinoxes.”
Commenting on the autumn equinox Lady Flavia says: “In Jerusalem the solar orb would on this day rise directly over and appear to rest on the Mount of Olives….We have seen that an old German manuscript claims that Urim-and-Thummim (Perfect Light) was a crystal set in gold; and that the old Celtic lays claim that the crystal ‘hilt’ of the fiery brand was kept in the Temple at Jerusalem.” Moreover, the author’s John Michell and Christine Rhone, in their work Twelve Tribe Nations and the Science of Enchanting the Landscape (1991) remark: “….the ‘Messianic ley’ from the Mount of Olives and along the Temple axis points directly to the most sacred rock of Christendom, the hill of Golgotha or Calvary whereon Jesus was crucified. Golgotha is a natural rock pinnacle, a miniature sacred mountain, which in the time of Jesus stood just outside the city walls. There is archaeological evidence that it was once a place of pagan worship. It is traditionally claimed that Adam’s skull is buried beneath it, and this contributes to its Christian reputation as the symbolic world centre.”
In her book Points of Cosmic Energy (1987) the Swiss geo-biologist Blanche Merz comments on these ancient sites which she regards as “power points”. She says “These power points….can be defined as locations or sites endowed with an energy, a force, a strength. This quality is related to a precise geographical location which humans must have discovered in ancient times, whether by feeling, by intuition, by observation or by a deep knowledge of earth-cosmos relationships which we have lost. Step by step the twentieth century has gone about rediscovering the ancient learning of those initiates called geomancers….There is a large number of these power points on the surface of our globe. They have varying effects and some of them have been used for specific purposes. In order to find these strong spots today we have to track down, first of all, the ancient places of open-air worship, next to the temples and cathedrals …. ” (Definition: geobiology is the study of the Earth’s influence, at a precise point, on everything that lives, be it human, animal or plant).
The Rev. George Oliver D.D. says in his History of Initiation (1841): “The places of initiation and worship were generally either circular, because a circle was a significant emblem of the universe, governed and preserved by an omnipresent deity, who is described in the writings of Hermes Trismegistus, as a circle whose centre is everywhere, and whose circumference is nowhere; and pointed out the unity of the godhead; a doctrine distinctly asserted by the druids; or oval, in allusion to the mundane egg; though the instances of this form are of rare occurrence, the adytum being more frequently oviform than the temple; or serpentine, because a serpent was the symbol of the deity, who was no other than the diluvian patriarch Noah, consecrated by the druids under the name of Hu; and the common emblem of a serpent entwining himself over an egg, was intended to represent Hu preserved in the ark; or winged, to figure the motion of the divine spirit; or cruciform, because a cross was the symbol of regeneration and life.”
It would appear that in the remote past certain geomantic vortex points on the earth’s surface were found to be conducive for the interconnection between sub-terrestrial, terrestrial and cosmic influences and vibrations. A specific vibrational field was created by the interaction of these forces which proved conducive to spiritual activities and higher communement with other dimensional frequencies. It was at these geomantic points that sites of spiritual worship were often established, and thus we find megalithic stone monuments (circles, standing stones and dolmens etc.) and later temples, monasteries and churches, all strategically placed at these geomantic power points and almost always sited in some form of alignment with each other. These alignments invariably follow certain ‘lines of force’, or earth energy ‘leys’, which appear to cover the whole planet in a huge grid format. There may also be specific geometric overlays upon the global grid system itself, the ramifications of which may prove to be far reaching indeed, and suggests the out-working of highly sophisticated spiritual dynamics. Interestingly, German geomantic researchers refer to earth energy leylines as Holy Lines (Heilige Linien).
It may be that this Planetary Grid System, together with specific geometric overlays, is also found on other planets and stars in this Universal system, e.g. the Moon and Mars. The late professor Percy Wilkins, at one time regarded as the leading lunar astronomer, remarked that in the crater Gassendi, on the Moon, were parallel lines, triangles and geometric shapes. Where these intersect are pits or dome-like structures. If these patterns were natural cracks, they are unique to the Moon. Some parallel lines run up to the crater wall where there are what look like entrances to tunnels, and regular rows of dots then march over the wall to rejoin the parallel line on the far side from where they continue for many miles. From these tunnels bright lights had been observed emerging. Moreover, another astronomer, as long ago as 1871, had recorded geometric patterns in the crater Plato. There is also the more recent data which has been supplied by a former NASA scientist, Richard Hoagland, regarding the so-called ‘face on mars’ at the Cydonia complex. According to Hoagland there appear to be mathematical alignments at this complex on Mars which correlate exactly to specific mathematical alignments at the Avebury megalithic complex in Wiltshire, England.
One, at least, of the functions of such geometric overlay patterns may be to create specific space/time ‘Gates’, or portals for inter-dimensional movement. The ancient folk tradition of the Scottish Highlands speaks about the ‘thin places’ i.e. places where the veil is thin between inter-dimensional vibrational frequencies. This may account for the apparent ability of some people with a heightened psychic awareness to perceive what are termed the fairy or devic realms. These ‘thin places’ may be inter-dimensional portals, and it may be that a combination of natural radiation and magnetism could produce altered states of consciousness or a heightened psychic awareness as a prerequisite to accessing such spiritual gateways. As Paul Devereux relates in his book Places of Power: measuring the secret energy of ancient sites (1999): “The ancient sites of power were sometimes found, and sometimes deliberately constructed to mimic or enhance what could be found in nature. In either case, the forces of the natural world were used. And they were used for a variety of purposes, such as the promotion of fertility and for healing. But the over-riding purpose was the need to have gateways through which contact with spirit could be achieved. In the ancient world there were certain people who knew how to work with the physical world in order to create access to the spiritual.”
The following intriguing story illustrates the powerful importance and magnitude surrounding some of the energised megalithic sacred sites of ancient solar (fire) worship – the fire that does not burn. After the 1914-18 world war, a distinguished British army engineer and surveyor, Major F.A. Menzies, M.C., decided to live in France where he chose to investigate the subtle energies of the earth. Major Menzies was very interested in the study of radiesthesia and while in France he was tutored by M. Bovis and other leading French exponents of radiesthesia. During this time Major Menzies became aware of the importance of the Feng Shui system of geomancy which had been developed by the ancient Chinese geomancers. He was able to see examples of the Chinese geomancers compass in certain museums in Paris, which had been brought from China by Jesuit missionaries. Major Menzies made drawings of one of these amazing compasses and eventually constructed a modified version for his own use. By learning how to use the Chinese geomancers compass in conjunction with his British army compass, Major Menzies became very proficient in locating earth energy alignments (leylines), and also sources of noxious energy which were creating areas of geopathic stress and ill health.
Eventually, Major Menzies returned to England where, during the 1940’s, he carried out research work, using both his compasses, at the ancient megalithic site of Stanton Drew, six miles south of Bristol in the south west of England. Stanton Drew is comprised of several megalithic stone circles which are said to possibly date back to 3,000 B.C. They are believed to have been associated with solar (fire) worship in Pagan times. While investigating these stone circles, Major Menzies had an extraordinary experience which he subsequently related to a friend and fellow surveyor, George Sandwith. Major Menzies said: “Although the weather was dull there was no sign of a storm. Just at a moment when I was re-checking a bearing on one of the stones in that group, it was as if a powerful flash of lightning hit the stone, so the whole group was flood-lit, making them glow like molten gold in a furnace. Rooted to the spot – unable to move – I became profoundly awestruck, as dazzling radiations from above, caused the whole group of stones to pulsate with energy in a way that was terrifying. Before my eyes, it seemed the stones were enveloped in a moving pillar of fire – radiating light without heat – writhing upwards towards the heavens: on the other hand it was descending in a vivid spiral effect of various shades of colour – earthward. In fact the moving, flaring lights gyrating around the stones had joined the heavens with the earth.”
For many years Major Menzies had been searching for the source of Cosmic energy, which appears to underlie and give rise to the visible creative universe. At last, he felt that the Chinese geomancers compass had enabled him to find this energy source. It may be of interest to note that Major Menzies’ experience at Stanton Drew may have a direct bearing on the “fire-pillars” of ancient Phoenician tradition and elsewhere. To requote Rev. J.A. Wylie: “Altein is a name given to certain stones or rocks found in many districts of Scotland, and which are remarkable for their great size, and the reverence in which they are held by the populace, from the tradition that they played an important part in the mysteries transacted in former days. Altein is a compound word – al, a stone, and teine, fire, and so it signifies ‘the stone of fire’….These ‘stones of fire’ form a connecting link between the early Caledonia and the ancient Phoenicia….The fire-pillars that blazed at the foot of Lebanon burned in honour of the same gods as those that lighted up the straths of Caledonia. Ezekiel speaks of the ‘stones of fire’ of Tyre, and his description enables us to trace the same ceremonies at the Phoenician alteins as we find enacted at the Scottish ones.” (History of the Scottish Nation, 1886, vol. I).
Other pertinent information which apparently relates to the ancient worship of an “unextinguishable” sacred fire is provided in Phoenician Ireland by Dr. J.L. Villanueva who writes: “That the ancient Irish were worshippers of fire is a point upon which the antiquarians of the country are all unanimous….the town of Uregare, in the barony of Coshma, and county Limerick, is obviously compounded of, ur-egar, meaning, a shrine dedicated to fire; or else, of, ur-egur, an altar consecrated to the same. Urglin, too, the name of a village in the barony of Catherlough, county Carlow, is made up of the words ur-glin, a manifestation, or revelation of fire; or, ur-galglin, fire in a round heap of stones; for, glin, in the Syriac, means heaps of stones, as well as it did, a manifestation; and galglin, rotundities, or roundnesses….St. Jerome makes mention of this fire worship amongst the Chaldeans….The same is asserted by the ancients of the Medes, from whom this superstition was transferred to the Syrians, and from them again to other nations inhabiting Asia….In 1820, Henry de Loundres, archbishop of Dublin, put out this fire, called ‘unextinguishable,’ – which had been preserved, though a remnant of the pagan idolatry of Baal - from the earliest times, by the nuns of St. Brigid, at Kildare. It was re-lighted, and continued to burn until the total suppression of monasteries; the ruins of the fire-house and nunnery still remain….”
Dr. Villanueva then comments on: “.…the ‘Atush kudu,’ or fire chapels, which Zoroaster had ordered to be erected. These ancient temples of Cybele or Vesta, wherein was preserved the perpetual fire, were called by the Irish, Tlachgo, which some would derive from the Irish word, tlacht, the earth, the world. But it more properly comes from the Phoenician, thlal, he exalted, in conformity with the elevation of those edifices. Nay, the word, clogha itself, the Iberno Celtic denomination thereof, appears to me of Phoenician origin, from clach, he shut up, in reference to the fire; for the Phoenicians called these fires, cammia, from, camas, hidden; because that in them was preserved the fire concealed….tantamount to the ‘God of fire,’ or the ‘fire of God’….Besides the name of Urrin, Uregare, and Urglin, there occur others in the topography of Ireland which evidently borrowed their origin from this worship of fire; Delgany for instance, or, Delgueny, as it is otherwise called, being the name of a village in the county Wicklow….to my mind, Delgany is a Phoenician name derived from, delkin, which means a burning fire, the root of which is, deleche, blazed or burned. From this worship also, would seem to be derived the name of the ancient district of Duleek, which at present forms both a barony and borough town in the county Meath; for, in the Syriac language, duleck, signifies an immense fire. Thus in the Syriac version of the gospel according to St. John, it is said, ‘he was (dulek) a burning light’….Aire-Caldachiaroc, the name of a district in the county Tyrone, seems to me to be compounded of the Phoenician words, hair, he kindled a blazing fire; Caildai, a Chaldean; and, chiric, an enclosed place, or chirac, a citadel; intimating altogether, a fortified place, where the Chaldeans—the name by which the Phoenicians designated all magicians and soothsayers—used to worship the sacred fire.”
Clearly there is much yet to be learnt from an ancient Wisdom Tradition which appears to be rooted in the mists of antiquity. For example, during a psychometric reading given at the stone circle of Sun Honey by Echt, in Aberdeenshire in 1944, the writer J. Foster Forbes, was provided with the following information: “They [the Druids] erected magnetic centres and constructed Pits known as Vortices in which they induced magnetism through their Auras. The influence so induced went deep down into the ground even to the Inner Magnetic Poles thereby making a fusion and thus veered the Earth round so that it came much nearer to the correct North as it is to-day; but still with this slight magnetic variation. By this connection the Druids were able to cast their observatories much more truly and from then onwards things went forward and ushered in the later Monastic Communities (mark the term - J.F.F.) which in themselves were meant originally to be Spiritual Vortices for the purification of the Earth’s Aura, so that when the time was ripe the true Spiritual powers should gain in volume and true impetus.” ....
....To return to our primary theme, a Scottish dowser has traced an interesting leyline alignment from a triangular formation of stone circles at Fortingall through to an unusual megalithic standing stone in Glenlyon, known locally as the ‘praying hands of Mary’, finally reaching the Western Seaboard of Scotland where it terminates (or begins) at the curious rock formation known as Fingal’s Cave on the Isle of Staffa. The same Scottish dowser also traced another energy leyline alignment from Fingal’s Cave which passed right through the Abbey on the Isle of Iona. The unusual rock formation at Fingal’s Cave possesses a magnetic quality which is not unlike a similar rock formation to be found on the east coast of Ireland known as the “Giant’s Causeway”. It is interesting to note that the Rev. William Hamilton, Fellow of Trinity College, Ireland, in 1779, thought that the Island of Rathlin may be the surviving fragment of a large tract of country that formerly may have united Staffa and the Giant’s Causeway. In ancient Celtic ‘mythology’ Fingal was a Giant, perhaps a descendant of the ‘Giants of Old’ who were believed to be contemporaneous with the ancient lost Lands of Atlantis. It has been suggested that this Giant race may have possessed an ancient knowledge and technology regarding the Earth’s energy Grid and Chakra Systems. This may account for the quite extraordinary geometric matrix of megalithic alignments between stone circles, standing stones and other ancient sites of worship, not only throughout the British Isles, but all over the world.
In the western Isles of Scotland, the megalithic Callanish stones on the Isle of Lewis appear to align with other major archaic sites on a global basis. According to the author Terry Walsh in his treatise Global Sacred Alignments (1996), the megalithic stone site at Callanish on the western Isle of Lewis aligns with a number of major sacred sites around the world. For example, he connects the Callanish site with the Giza Plateau in Egypt, Carnac in Britanny, France, and Ephesus in Asia Minor. A Scottish dowser, David Cowan, records in Ancient Energies of the Earth (1999) the existence of a major leyline alignment which passes through Croft Moraig (“Field of Mary”) stone circle near Kenmore, Perthshire, and carries on to the Callanish megalithic site. Moreover, there is a straight line alignment from Eilean Isa (the Island of Jesus), off the Isle of Skye, which passes through Fortingall, eventually reaching the ‘Holy Isle’ of Lindisfarne, situated off the Northumbrian coastline, north east England. David Cowan observes that at the centre of the radial ‘leys’ castles were sometimes built. The same may be said of some of the ancient hill forts of Caledonia. For example, Dungeal at Fortingall the royal seat of the Caledonian King Metallanus, referred to earlier. Also, the Templar Blanchefort fortress located in the Rennes region of France. David Cowan also located a major leyline running from Machuim, a six stone circle at Lawers along Lochtayside, Perthshire, through to a volcanic plug called Boreray on the Scottish western Isle of St. Kilda. Could there perhaps be a linguistic connection between the gaelic Machuim and Machu Pichu, the megalithic Inca City in Peru, bearing in mind that im is the Hebrew plural ending?
In their book The Sun and the Serpent (1994) the authors, Hamish Miller and Paul Broadhurst, observe that leyline earth energies appear to be of different polarities. They remark: “One type was Solar in influence, traditionally associated in the Christian ethos with St. Michael, the other was Lunar, indisputably feminine and connected with the Earth Goddess whose Christian counterpart was St. Mary.” Interestingly, this Mary Line alignment appears to be found in central Scotland. For example, between the megalithic stone circle, Croft Moraig (the Field of Mary), and a megalithic standing stone known as the ‘Praying Hands of Mary’ in Glenlyon, sited approximately 15 miles to the west. Another possible alignment can be found between Marywell in Angus, passing through Meigle, Perthshire (an ancient Templar site), then to the megalithic stone circle Croft Moraig, then through Fortingall, continuing on to Invervar, Glenlyon (where an ancient chapel and holy well were sited), finally reaching Tobermory on the northern coastline of the Isle of Mull. The placename Tobermory is derived from a gaelic word meaning ‘Well of Mary’, thus revealing an interesting alignment between Marywell on the east coast of Scotland, and the ‘Well of Mary’ off the west coast of Scotland.
It may be of interest to note that the ‘Holy Isle’ of the Orkneys, Eynhallow, has been called the ‘Egypt of the North’, due to a preponderance of ancient sites apparently both pre-Christian and Celto-monastic. Further, the old Norsemen referred specifically to Eynhallow as THE holy isle. There also appears to be an interesting alignment connecting Eynhallow to other early celtic monastic sites and also pre-Christian megalithic sites. On a north east upward axis, an early celtic monastic site on Eynhallow would appear to align to a similar site at Crosskirk and then continues on to St. Tredwell’s chapel on Papa Westray also within the Orkney Isle matrix. Following this alignment on a south west axis downward it appears to pass through the pre-Christian megalithic stone circle known as the Ring of Brodgar. Continuing downwards through the north of Scotland it eventually strikes Tobermory on the Isle of Mull, continuing on to finally reach the holy Isle of Iona. A further interesting leyline alignment may be found between the western Isle of Iona and Montrose on the east coast of the Scottish mainland, which appears to pass through the ancient Celtic royal burial site at Dunstaffnage, then Fortingall, St. Mary’s Church Grandtully, Aberlemno, which is marked by two ancient and inscribed stones, finally reaching Montrose (Mount of the Rose).
There may be a geomorphic holy matrix energy alignment, such as holy isle matrices, holy mountain matrices and holy well matrices. For example, there may be an energetic alignment between such Holy Isles as Eynhallow in the Northern Orkney Isles, the Scottish Western Isle of Iona, and Lindisfarne off the north east coast of England, all of which were held sacred by the Celtic Culdee monks. Moreover, this writer received a letter (30th September 1998) from George Sandwith, a spiritual mystic and world traveller, saying how he and Sir George Trevelyan climbed the holy mountain of Skirrid Fawr, near Abergavanny in Wales. It was as a result of their “joint belief in the power of Holy Mountains – worldwide.” George Sandwith writes that friends of Sir George, who lived at the foot of this holy mountain, spoke about unaccountable “moving lights on the summit of the mountain”.
Commenting on the veneration of Holy Mountains and Holy Islands in ancient times, the Rev. George Stanley Faber, in The Origin of Pagan Idolatry (1816, vol.III), observes: “Lofty mountains, each viewed as the mountain of debarkation, were equally venerated by the ancient Celts….every towering hill was reckoned holy….The same remark may be made with regard to islands. Among the Hindoos, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Scythians, the Celts and the Americans, they were alike accounted sacred and were alike used for the purposes of devotion….The hero-gods were those mortals, who flourished in the two golden ages antedeluvian and postdeluvian; and the mountain, which is thus shadowed out by every local consecrated hill, can only be the arkite and Paradisiacal mountain of Ararat. Among the Hindoos this holy mountain bears the name of Meru….Now the Hindoos deem every holy mountain a copy of Meru: and, accordingly, they have many hills, which are all equally designated by this title. Every hill therefore, which is thus designated, is really a local transcript of the Armenian mountain: and, as the theology of the whole gentile world is fundamentally the same; each sacred peak, wherever situated, must obviously be viewed in the same light. Agreeably to this conclusion, the traditions and notions, attached to these several high places, will constantly be found to point towards Paradise and the Ark: and the reason is, that each is the local Ararat of the country where it is situated. Thus Parnassus, and Olympus, and the Singalese peak of Adam, and the Mauritanian Atlas, and the British Snowdon and Cader-Idris, not to mention almost innumerable other hills, are all equally imitative transcripts of what the Hindoos call Meru but what is really the Paradisiacal mountain of the Ark.” It is interesting to note the arkite and Mount Ararat connection, which relates to the Noachian diaspora.
 Paul Screeton, Quicksilver Heritage: the Mystic Leys – their Legacy of Ancient Wisdom, 1974, p.270.
 Major F.A. Menzies related his experience at Stanton Drew to George Sandwith, also a professional surveyor, on 16th March 1952. Major Menzies died the following year. George Sandwith in turn related the story to this writer and his wife.
 J.L. Villanueva, Phoenician Ireland, 1833, Dublin, pp.305-314, English translation by Henry O’Brien.
 J. Foster Forbes, Giants of Britain, 1945, pp.74-75.
 Kathleen O’Loughlin, Newport Tower, 1948, Canada, p.9.
 John Mooney, Eynhallow: the Holy Island of the Orkneys, 1949, 2nd edition, p.135.
© copyright 1996-2002 Barry Dunford
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The Holy Land of Scotland: Jesus in Scotland and the Gospel of the Grail Mysteries of Chartres Cathedral
Rosa Templum: The enigmatic arcanum of Rosslyn Chapel and the Bride of Christ